Evaluating transmitters for quantifying respiratory airflow in the breathing mechanism
More details
Hide details
Department of Mechanics and Vibroacoustics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, AGH University of Krakow. Poland
Department of Mechatronics, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury, 11 Oczapowskiego St., 10 710 Olsztyn, Poland
Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliski st, 00-908 Warsaw. Poland
Department and Clinic of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Warszawska St. 30, 10 082 Olsztyn, Poland
Weles Acoustics Sp. z o.o., ul. Przemysłowa 13, 44-203 Rybnik, Poland
Submission date: 2023-11-22
Final revision date: 2023-12-29
Acceptance date: 2023-12-30
Online publication date: 2023-12-30
Publication date: 2024-01-10
Corresponding author
Szymon Nitkiewicz   

Department of Mechatronics, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury, 11 Oczapowskiego St., 10 710 Olsztyn, Poland
Diagnostyka 2024;25(1):2024105
Techniques for measuring fluid flow have been known since the 19th century. The first solutions based on the use of pressure only allowed relatively slow changes to be observed. It was not until measurement techniques based on the use of electronic components and the phenomenon of thermo-transfer, combined with a method enabling fast signal recording (A/C converters), that it became possible to analyse the flow of a medium (e.g. air) in detail. Although flow sensors based on measuring changes in resistance have been known for many years, new solutions are still being developed. This paper presents the results of tests using several sensor solutions. It should be noted that sensor research is related to the need to develop a device to measure flow as accurately as possible, while at the same time ensuring the comfort of the test person during the measurements. Therefore, the search was for a sensor that is small in size and at the same time resistant to damage and operation in a harsh humid environment.
This research was funded by the Department of Mechanics and Vibroacoustics at AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow, Poland, grant number Results presented in this paper were also obtained thanks to the work carried out under the POIR.01.01.01-00-0339/17 project (financed by NCBR).
Zagrodny B, Wojnicz W, Ludwicki M, Awrejcewicz J. Could Thermal Imaging Supplement Surface Electromyography Measurements for Skeletal Muscles? IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 2021; 70: 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIM.20....
Kukwa A, Zając A, Barański R, Nitkiewicz S, Kukwa W, Zomkowska E, Rybak A. Anatomical and functional assessment of patency of the upper respiratory tract in selected respiratory disorders – Part 1. Metrology and Measurement Systems 2021; 28(4): 813-836. https://doi.org/10.24425/mms.2....
Zając A, Kukwa A, Barańska R, Nitkiewicz S, Zomkowska E, Rybak A. Anatomical and functional assessment of patency of the upper respiratory tract in selected respiratory disorders – part 2. Metrology and Measurement Systems 2022; 29(3): 429-454. https://doi.org/10.24425/mms.2....
Traczyk W, Trzebski A. Fizjologia człowieka z elementami fizjologii stosowanej i klinicznej, 3rd ed., PZWL, Warszawa, 2015.
Konturek S, Brzozowski T, Chabowski A, Dembińska-Kieć A, Górski J, Gutkowski P, Mirecka P, Pawlik W, Sadowski B, Szczepańska-Sadowska E, Szlachcic A, Żołądź J. Fizjologia człowieka, Podręcznik dla studentów medycyny, 2nd ed; Elsevier Urban & Partner, Wrocław, 2013.
Mikołajczyk J, Bielecki Z, Stacewicz T, Smulko J, Wojtas J, Szabra D, Lentka Ł, Prokopiuk A, Magryta P. Detection of Gaseous Compounds with Different Techniques. Metrology and Measurement Systems 2016; 23: 205. https://doi.org/10.1515/mms-20....
Stacewicz T, Bielecki Z, Wojtas J, Magryta P, Mikolajczyk J, Szabra D. Detection of disease markers in human breath with laser absorption spectroscopy. Opto Electron Rev 2016; 24(2). https://doi.org/10.1515/oere-2....
Nitkiewicz S, Barański R, Galewski M, Zajączkiewicz H, Kukwa A, Zając A, Ejdys S, Artiemjew P. Requirements for supporting diagnostic equipment of respiration process in humans. Sensors 2021; 21(10): 3479. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103....
Hutchinson J. On the capacity of the lungs, and on the respiratory functions, with a view of establishing a precise and easy method of detecting disease by the spirometer. Medico-Chirurgical Transactions 1846; 29: 137–252. https://doi.org/10.1177/095952....
Hayes D, Kraman SS. Review Article: The Physiologic Basis of Spirometry, 2009) 1717–1726.] [W.F. Miller, N. Wu, R.L. Johnson Jr., Convenient method of evaluating pulmonary ventilatory function with a single breath test, Anesthesiology. 17 (1956) 480–493.
de Mir Messa I, Sardón Prado O, Larramona H, Salcedo Posadas A, Villa Asensi JR, Grupo de Técnicas de la Sociedad Española de Neumología Pediátrica. [Body plethysmography (I): Standardisation and quality criteria]. Anales De Pediatria (Barcelona, Spain: 2003) 2015; 83(2): 136.e1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anpe....
Criée CP, Sorichter S, Smith HJ, Kardos P, Merget R, Heise D, Berdel D, Köhler D, Magnussen H, Marek W, Mitfessel H, Rasche K, Rolke M, Worth H, Jörres RA. Body plethysmography – Its principles and clinical use. Respir. Med 2011; 105: 959–971. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed....
Goldman M, Smith H, Ulmer W. Whole-body plethysmography. R. Gosselink, H. Stam (Eds.), Lung Funct. Test. Eur. Respir. Monogr., 31st ed., European Respiratory Society, Wakefield, UK, 2005: pp. 15–43.
Jablonski I, Mroczka J. Reduction of a linear complex model for respiratory system during Airflow Interruption. Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference 2010; 2010: 730–3. https://doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.....
Jabłoński I, Mroczka J. Computer-aided evaluation of a new interrupter algorithm in respiratory mechanics measurement. Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering 2006; 26(3): 33–47.
Jabłoński I, Mroczka J. A station for the respiratory mechanics measurement by occlusion techniques. Metrology and Measurement Systems. 2007; 15: 229–240.
Sydenham PH. Handbook of Metrology, Vol. 2, Practical Basics in polish., WKiŁ, Warszawa, 1990.
LaNasa P.J, Loy E. Upp, Fluid Flow Measurement, A Practical Guide to Accurate Flow Measurement, 2nd ed., Elsevier, Oxford, 2002.
Unitary Analysis, Synthesis, and Classification of Flow Meters, Moțit, H.M., CRC Press.
Melo RE, Popov TA, Solé D. Exhaled breath temperature, a new biomarker in asthma control: a pilot study. Jornal Brasileiro De Pneumologia: Publicacao Oficial Da Sociedade Brasileira De Pneumologia E Tisilogia 2010; 36(6): 693–9. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1806-....
Popov TA, Dunev S, Kralimarkova TZ, Kraeva S, DuBuske LM. Evaluation of a simple, potentially individual device for exhaled breath temperature measurement. Respiratory Medicine 2007; 101(10): 2044–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed....
García G, Bergna M, Uribe E, Yañez A, Soriano JB. Increased exhaled breath temperature in subjects with uncontrolled asthma. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013; 17(7): 969-972. https://doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.....
Oto J, Imanaka H, Nishimura M. Clinical factors affecting inspired gas humidification and oral dryness during noninvasive ventilation. Journal of Critical Care 2011; 26(5): 535.e9-535.e15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc....
IST AG Innovative Sensor Technology. Thermal gas flow sensor FS7 IST AG; [citation 2023.10.27]. https://www.ist-ag.com/en/prod....
Flow Demo Board FS5/ FS7 / OOL, Innovative Sensor Technology IST AG, Stegrütistrasse 14, 9642 Ebnat-Kappel, Switzerland, https://www.ist-ag.com/en/prod....
Nitkiewicz S, Barański R, Kukwa A, Zając A. Respiratory Disorders – Measuring Method And Equipment. Metrol Meas Syst 2023. https://doi.org/10.24425/11815....
Kacperek K. System for monitoring the upper respiratory tract, Krakow, AGH, 2022.
Barański R, Galewski M, Nitkiewicz S. The study of Arduino Uno feasibility for DAQ purposes. Diagnostyka 2019; 20: 33–48. https://doi.org/10.29354/diag/....
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top