Mechanical behavior and failure mechanism of resistance spot welded Aluminum and Copper joint used in the lightweight structures
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Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Baghdad, Iraq
University of Technology-Iraq, Mechanical Engineering Department, Baghdad, Iraq
College of Engineering, Al-Hussain University College, Iraq
Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Germany
Submission date: 2023-09-01
Final revision date: 2024-02-11
Acceptance date: 2024-03-22
Online publication date: 2024-03-23
Publication date: 2024-03-23
Corresponding author
Marwah Fakhri   

Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
The study investigates dissimilar metal resistance spot welding (RSW), focusing on copper-aluminum (Cu-Al) joints for electric vehicle applications. Welding T2-grade copper and AA1050 aluminum sheets (1 mm thick) required optimal welding conditions accounting for material types and thicknesses. Using Minitab 19 software and the Taguchi method, welding parameters for maximal joint strength were determined. Hardness, fracture characteristics, and weld strength were assessed, revealing Cu's superior strength and hardness over Al. Aluminum's transition to a liquid state during welding formed intermetallic compounds, leading to crack initiation and plug-out fracture. Lower aluminum hardness resulted in fractures within the heat-affected zone (HAZ), propagating to pull-out failure. Dissimilar Cu-Al joints showed ultimate tensile stress of 26 MPa, while similar copper joints exhibited 98 MPa strength. The symmetric aluminum joint had a strength of 93 MPa, with a maximum tensile shear force of 512 N at 14000 A welding current. Pull-out failure occurred in Cu-Al joints, with the fusion zone showing maximum hardness. These findings align with relevant literature, confirming their validity.
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