Detection of slag inclusions in MMA joints with passive thermography techniques
More details
Hide details
Politechnika Śląska
Submission date: 2020-02-25
Final revision date: 2020-05-25
Acceptance date: 2020-05-26
Online publication date: 2020-05-27
Publication date: 2020-05-27
Corresponding author
Wojciech Jamrozik   

Politechnika Śląska
Diagnostyka 2020;21(2):111-117
Arc welding with coated electrode, called also manual metal arc welding (MMAW) is one of the most popular welding methods. One of the disadvantages of this method is the formation of slag inclusions caused by improper removal of slag from the previously made weld, too little heat supplied to the joint or too little gap in the height of the ridge. Such inclusions significantly reduce the mechanical properties of the joint, eliminating them already at the manufacturing stage is important from the point of view of ensuring the quality of the products. A method of detecting solid inclusions in the weld using infrared monitoring has been proposed. Thermograms were subjected to Fourier 2D transformation. For the two-dimensional spectra (F-images) images obtained in this way, point features describing the weld condition in a given measuring window were determined. The results of the analyses plotted as a function of the electrode path allowed for their comparison with X-rays and selection of F-image features, the best in terms of detection of slag inclusions in welds.
Alfaro SCA, Vargas JAR, De Carvalho GC, De Souza GG. Characterization of "humping" in the GTA welding process using infrared images. J Mater Process Technol. 2015; 223: 216-224,
Du D, Cai G, Tian Y, Hou R, Wang L. Automatic inspection of weld defects with x-ray real-time imaging. In: Tarn TJ, Chen SB, Zhou C. (eds) Robotic Welding, Intelligence and Automation. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, vol 362. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2017;362.
Fidali M, Jamrozik W. Method of classification of global machine conditions based on spectral features of infrared images and classifiers fusion. Quant InfraRed Thermography J. 2019; 16(1): 129-145.
Górka J, Czupryński A, Adamiak M. Properties and structure of nanocrystalline layers obtained by Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMA) 2017 Archives of Metallurgy and Materials. 2017; 62(3): 1479-1484,
Górka J, Jamrozik W. Application of time-frequency methods for assessment of gas metal arc welding condition. In: Awrejcewicz J. (eds) Dynamical Systems in Applications. DSTA 2017. Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics, Springer, Cham. 2018;249:125-133.
Huang Y, Wang K, Zhou Q. et al. Feature extraction for gas metal arc welding based on EMD and time–frequency entropy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol. 2017; 92: 1439–1448.
Jamrozik W. Modified random walker segmentation method of welding arc thermograms for welding process diagnostics. Int J Mater Prod Technol 2015;51(3):281-295.
Moore P, Booth G. Welding problems and defects, The Welding Engineers Guide to Fracture and Fatigue, 2015.
Nixon SM, Aguado S. Feature extraction and image processing. Oxford, Boston: Newnes; 2002.
Reisgen U, Stein L, Balashov B, Geffers C. Nanophase hardfaced coatings. Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik, 2009; 40: 618-622.
Weman K, Manual metal arc (MMA) welding with coated electrodes, In: Weman K. ed., Woodhead Publishing Series in Welding and Other Joining Technologies, Welding Processes Handbook (Second Edition), Woodhead Publishing. 2012: 99-103.
Węgrzyn T, Wieszala R. Significant alloy elements in welded steel structures of car body. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials. 2012; 57(1): 45-52
Tomków J, Fydrych D, Rogalski G. Role of bead sequence in underwater welding. 2019, Materials, 12(20): 3372,
Tomków J, Rogalski G, Fydrych D, Labanowski J, Advantages of the application of the temper bead welding technique during wet welding, 2019 Materials 16(6):915.
Zhang L, Basantes-Defaz AC, Ozevin D. et al. Real-time monitoring of welding process using air-coupled ultrasonics and acoustic emission. Int J Adv Manuf Technol. 2019; 101: 1623–1634.
Zhang L, Mostavi A, Basantes-Defaz A, Ozevin D, Indacochea JE. The measurement of weld morphology and inclusions using ultrasonics. Measurement. 2019;144:33-43.
Zhang L, Su S, Wang L, Chen J. Investigation of arc behaviour and metal transfer in cross arc welding, Journal of Manufacturing Processes. 2019; 37:124-129.
Zhang Y, Zhang N, You D, Gao X, Katayama S. High-power disk laser welding statuses monitoring based on analyses of multiple-sensor signals. J Manuf Processes. 2019;41:221-230.
Zhang Z, Chen H, Xu Y, Zhong J, Lv N, Chen S. Multisensor-based real-time quality monitoring by means of feature extraction, selection and modeling for Al alloy in arc welding. Mech Syst Signal Process 2015;60:151-165.
Zhang Z, Kannatey-Asibu E, Chen S. et al. Online defect detection of Al alloy in arc welding based on feature extraction of arc spectroscopy signal. Int J Adv Manuf Technol. 2015; 79:2067–2077.
Żuk M, Górka J, Dojka R, Czupryński A. Repair welding of cast iron coated electrodes, 2017 IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 227(1),
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top